In Python, we do not specify the variable type. But in some conditions, we have to specify it. This technique is done by the casting. By the use of the constructor function, we can access the casting in Python.
These constructor functions are given below
int():It is used to construct an integer number from a float and string value. The float value will represent by rounding the first whole number. The string value will represent a whole number. Examples are given below
a = int(5) b = int(9.2) c = int("14") print(a) # 5 print(b) # 9 print(c) # 14
float():It is used to constructs a float number from an integer value and a string value. These two will represent by delivering a float or an integer number. Examples are given below
a = float(15) b = float("12") c = float("24.12") print(a) # 15.0 print(b) # 12.0 print(c) # 24.12
str():It is used to construct a string from an integer or a float number. Examples are given below
a = str("abc1") b = str(6) c = str(12.05) print(a) # 'abc1' print(b) # '6' print(c) # '12.05'
Python casting is also known as python type conversation. It is very important in our daily programming challenges. Changing from one data type to another data type is known as a 'type conversation'. Implicit type conversion and explicit type conversion are two types of type of conversation in Python.
Changing one data type to one data type to another data type is called implicit type conversation. Implicit type conversation does not require any user connection. We know that integer is a lower data type and float is a higher data type. The main objective is to avoid data loss when the conversion happens between lower and higher data type. An example is given below
int_number = 100 float_number = 20.45 total_number = int_number + float_number print(type(int_number)) #<integer> print(type(float_number)) #<float> print(total_number) #120.45 print(type(total_number)) #<float>
Users change the data type as per the programming requirement is known as explicit type conversation. We can use the constructor function (described above) to use such operations. It is also called typecasting in the programming language. An example is given below
int_number = 100 string_number = "500" print(type(int_number)) #<integer> print(type(string_number))#<string> string_number = int(string_number) #changing from string to integer print(type(string_number)) #<integer> total = int_number + string_number print(total) #600 print(type(total)) #<integer>
ord()function is used to convert a character to an integer.
hex()function is used for changing integer data type to hexadecimal data type.
oct()function is used to convert an integer to an octal string.
tuple()function is used for converting a data type to a tuple.
set()function is used for changing the data type to set.
list()function is used to convert any data type to a list.
dict()function is used to change to a dictionary from a tuple.
complex()function is used to change the real data into complex data.
chr()function is used to print the number depending on the ASCII value
Examples are given below,
st = '8' print ( ord(st)) ch = hex(112) print (ch) ch = oct(112) print (ch) st = 'python' print (tuple(st)) print (set(st)) print (list(st)) t = (('P', 10) ,('T', 20), ('N', 30)) print (complex(5,9)) print (dict(t))