# Python Operators: Arithmetic, Comparison, Assignment and More

In Python, operators are used to operating mathematical operations on operands. In simple words, operators are symbols and operands are variable & values. Python has various types of operators or operator groups. Each group is used for individual purposes.

Groups are,

• Arithmetic operators
• Assignment operators
• Comparison operators
• Logical operators
• Identity operators
• Membership operators
• Bitwise operators

## Arithmetic Operators

These operators are used for mathematical calculations. It only deals with numerical values. Those operations can be addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, etc. Let's say, `a=10` and b`=30`

Operator Name Description Example
- Subtraction Subtract two operands print(a-b)
* Multiplication Multiply two operands print(a*b)
/ Division Divide two operands print(a/b)
% Modulus Divide two operands and look on remainder print(a%b)
** Exponentiation Perform exponential operations (power) print(a**b)
// Floor Division Divide two operands and look on quotient and make whole number print(a//b)

## Python Assignment Operators

We use assignment operators for assigning value to a variable. For example: b`=5`. Here `=` is an assignment operator.

Operator Example Equivalent to
= b=5 b=5
+= b+=5 b=b+5
-= b-=5 b=b-5
*= b*=5 b=b*5
/= b/=5 b=b/5
%= b%=5 b=b%5
//= b//=5 b=b//5
**= b**=5 b=b**5
&= b&=5 b=b&5
|= b|=5 b=b|5
^= b^=5 b=b^5
>>= b>>=5 b=b<<5
<<= b<<=5 b=b<<5

## Python Comparison Operators

Comparison Operators are also known as relational operators. For comparing two values or variables, we use this operator. Based on the condition or statement, it returns either true or false. Let's say, `a=10` and `b=30`

Operator Name Description Example
== Equal If two operands are the same then it will return true print(a==b)
!= Not equal It will return true if two operands aren't the same print(a!=b)
> Greater than It will return true if the left variable is greater than the right variable print(a>b)
< Less than It will return true if the left variable is lesser than the right variable print(a<b)
>= Greater than or equal to It will return true if the left variable is greater than or equal to the right variable print(a>=b)
<= Less than or equal to It will return true if the left variable is lesser than or equal to the right variable print(a<=b)

## Python Logical Operators

Python supports three logical operators. Those are and, or, and not. To combine conditional statements, these logical operators are used. Let say, a=10

Operator Description Example
and It returns true if both conditions are true print(a>5 and a>10)
or It returns true if one of the condition is true print(a<5 or a<10)
Not It returns true if the statement is false and vice versa print(not(a<5 and a<10))

## Python Identity Operators

Python identity operator is known as the membership operator. These operators are used to compare the objects. It is used to check if two values are positioned on the same memory portion or not. Two variables can be equal. It does not indicate that they are identical. Let say, a=10

Operator Description Example
Is If the operand is identical, it returns true print(a is 10)
is not If the operand is not identical, it returns true print(a is not 15)

## Python Membership Operators

These operators are used to check the sequence object. Let say, a=[5,10,15]

Operator Description Example
In If a variable is found in the sequence, it returns true print(5 in a)
not in If a variable is not found in the sequence, it returns true print(6 not in a)

## Python Bitwise Operators

These operators are used to examine binary digits.

Operator Name Description
Operator Name Description
& AND It will set each bit to 1 if both contain 1
| OR It will set each bit to 1 if any 1 contains 1
^ XOR It will set each bit to 1 if only 1 contains 1
~ NOT reverses all
>> Zero left shift by shifting zeros, it will move to left
<< Signed right shift shift right by pushing leftmost copies