There are several algorithms used for string manipulation and processing in programming. Here are some of the most common ones:

## Brute Force Algorithm:

This is a simple and straightforward algorithm like a naive string matching algorithm** **that searches for a pattern in a string by comparing it to all possible substrings of the same length in the string. While it is easy to understand and implement, it can be quite inefficient for large strings.

The Brute Force Algorithm is a simple and straightforward approach to solving problems related to string manipulation and processing. The algorithm works by comparing a pattern to all possible substrings of the same length in a given string to find a match.

The algorithm starts by taking a pattern and a string as input. It then iterates through all possible substrings of the same length in the string and compares them to the pattern. If a match is found, the algorithm returns the position of the match in the string.

While the Brute Force Algorithm is easy to understand and implement, it can be quite inefficient for large strings. This is because it has a time complexity of O(n^2), where n is the length of the string reverse in c. This means that the algorithm can take a long time to run if the string is very large.

## Knuth-Morris-Pratt Algorithm:

This algorithm is used to search for a pattern in a string by using a prefix table to skip over unnecessary comparisons. It has a time complexity of O(m + n), where m is the length of the pattern and n is the length of the string.

The Knuth-Morris-Pratt (KMP) Algorithm is a string-matching algorithm that uses a preprocessed prefix table to skip over unnecessary comparisons while searching for a pattern in a given string. It was developed by Donald Knuth, Vaughan Pratt, and James Morris in 1977.

The KMP Algorithm works by first preprocessing the pattern to create a prefix table, which is an array that contains the length of the longest proper prefix of the pattern that is also a suffix of each substring of the pattern. This table is used to determine the position to start the next comparison in the string when a mismatch occurs.

Once the prefix table is created, the algorithm compares the pattern to the string character by character. If a match is found, the algorithm continues to compare the next characters in the pattern and the string until the pattern is fully matched or a mismatch occurs. If a mismatch occurs, the algorithm uses the prefix table to determine the position to start the next comparison in the string, skipping over the characters that have already been matched.

## Boyer-Moore Algorithm:

This algorithm is similar to the Knuth-Morris-Pratt Algorithm and naive string matching algorithm, but it uses two tables to skip over comparisons in the string and the pattern. It has a time complexity of O(m + n) in the worst case.

The Boyer-Moore Algorithm is a string-matching algorithm that compares the pattern to the string from right to left, skipping over unnecessary comparisons based on the occurrence of mismatched characters.

The Boyer-Moore Algorithm works by first preprocessing the pattern to create two tables: the bad character table and the good suffix table. The bad character table contains the distance between the rightmost occurrence of each character in the pattern and the end of the pattern. This information is used to skip over unnecessary comparisons when a mismatch occurs. The good suffix table contains information about the occurrence of matching suffixes within the pattern. This information is used to determine the next position to compare in the pattern when a mismatch occurs.

## Rabin-Karp Algorithm:

This algorithm is used to search for a pattern in a string by computing hash values for each substring of the string and comparing them to the hash value of the pattern. It has a time complexity of O(mn), where m is the length of the pattern and n is the length of the string, but it can be made more efficient by using a rolling hash.

The Rabin-Karp Algorithm is a string-matching algorithm that uses a rolling hash function to compare the pattern to the string. The algorithm is based on the idea that if two strings have the same hash value, then they are likely to be equal.

The Rabin-Karp Algorithm works by first preprocessing the pattern to compute its hash value. It then computes the hash value of each substring of the **string reverse in c**** **of length equal to the length of the pattern. If the hash values of the substring and the pattern match, the algorithm compares the characters of the substring and the pattern one by one to confirm the match. If a match is found, the algorithm continues to compare the next characters in the pattern and the string until the pattern is fully matched or a mismatch occurs. If a mismatch occurs, the algorithm computes the hash value of the next substring of the string and repeats the process.

## Longest Common Substring Algorithm:

This algorithm is used to find the longest common substring between two strings by using dynamic programming to build a table of the lengths of the common substrings. It has a time complexity of O(mn), where m and n are the lengths of the two strings.

The Longest Common Substring (LCS) Algorithm is a dynamic programming algorithm used to find the longest common substring between two strings. A substring is a contiguous sequence of characters within a string.

The algorithm works by creating a table to store the lengths of the longest common substrings of all possible pairs of prefixes of the two input strings. The table is filled in a bottom-up fashion, starting with the base cases where either of the two input strings is empty. At each step, the algorithm compares the characters of the two strings and updates the table accordingly. The length of the longest common substring is the maximum value in the table.

To find the actual substring itself, the algorithm can backtrack through the table to find the path that leads to the maximum value. This path corresponds to the indices of the longest common substring in the input strings.

These are just a few of the many algorithms used for string manipulation and processing in programming. The choice of algorithm will depend on the specific problem being solved, the size of the strings involved, and other constraints such as time and space complexity.

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