1. Describe the SDLC process.
The Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) process, a combination of different steps or phases delivers a framework for creating and managing software or applications. SDLC process is considered a conceptual model that helps to improve the quality of software or applications.
2. What are the needs for using SDLC?
SDLC process provides a framework that helps to manage a planned and controlled development aspect. In other words, this framework offers a high level of control of the development process to get the desired solution (i.e. consistent with the user’s requirements).
3. How many phases are there in the SDLC process?
SDLC process is involved to develop software in a systematic way. So, the SDLC process has a total of 6 phases including –
- Planning or Requirement Gathering
- System Design
- Testing and
4. Mention some different types of important models used in SDLC.
- Waterfall Model
- Spiral Model
- Iterative Model
- Agile Model
- V- Model
5. What is the purpose of the planning stage?
In this stage, developers concentrate on the basic requirements of software development and build a plan according to the user’s requirements to achieve the desired goals. The possible risks such as unexpected outcomes, cost-benefit analysis, and scheduling of the project are also discussed in this initial stage.
6. What do you mean by SRS?
SRS stands for Software Requirement Specification. It is a document produced at the time of the planning stage. It is also considered a step of selecting desired requirements and documenting them. SRS acts as an agreement between the development team and clients.
7. What is the importance of a feasibility study?
The feasibility study is involved assessing how practical and beneficial software development will be for a company. A software analyst performs a complete analysis to understand the economic, technical, and operational feasibility of a project.
8. Provide a basic difference between CRS and SRS.
|CRS (Customer Requirement Specification)||SRS (Software Requirement Specification)|
|CRS is a brief document that consists of several duplicates, and missing information prepared by the business analyst.||SRS is the blueprint and is considered a final document that is well-organized and understandable for test engineers.|
9. What is the purpose of the design phase?
In this phase, the previously made SRS is used to change into a logical structure that needs to be implemented following a particular programming language. Designing a system helps to specify hardware and system requirements in terms of system architecture. As the output of this phase, a design document will come out in order to act as input for further process.
10. What is the purpose of the coding phase?
In this phase, the designed document that is made in the design phase will be converted into an executable programing language. As output, source code is considered and this source code will work as input in the next phase i.e. testing.
11. Why do we need testing in the SDLC process?
The testing phase is very important to check whether the developed code is matching with the design document. This stage ensures that the developed product meets the desired requirements of customers. This time, different types of tests are done including unit testing, acceptance testing, system testing, etc. The software testing team makes a collaboration with developers to identify and resolve software bugs.
12. Which SDLC model is considered top #1?
There is no best SDLC model present, as these models are considered based on the requirements of the development process. Different models follow unique features for developing software. Hence, selecting an SDLC model varies software-to-software. However, in these recent years, the agile model is popular and adopted by several software organizations.
13. Explain the agile model in brief.
The agile model is very effective to use as it follows a realistic and quick approach to provide software with some functional requirements within 15 to 20 days. The model works on iterative and incremental development. In each sprint, requirement, design, development, and testing stages are performed. In this process, testers and developers work together as a cross-functional team. The advantage is - this model performs constant changes based on customers’ feedback.
- It has a lack of empathy for the necessary design and documentation.
- It can be difficult to maintain a long cross-functional team.
14. Explain the waterfall model in brief.
The waterfall model (or) Classic Life Cycle Model (or) Linear Sequential Model is the 1st introduced model used in the SDLC process. In this model, each stage must be completed before starting another stage. It is very easy to understand and effectively use for small projects having no uncertain requirements.
- The waterfall model is not effective for complex projects where requirements are not clear.
- It is time-consuming as it needs enough time to complete every stage.
15. Explain the V-model in brief.
V-model stands for verification and validation of software. It is an advanced version of the waterfall model. In this model, testers and developers work together at a time. This model is responsible to establish a relationship between each phase of SDLC and its associated phase of testing.
- This model is very rigid and less flexible.
- No early prototype for the software is made as the software is developed in the implementation phase.
16. Briefly explain the iterative model in SDLC.
In iterative modeling, development starts with specifying and implementing different parts of the software, which can be reviewed further to recognize requirements. This process will repeat and make a new version of the software for each sprint of the model. It is easy to understand and use.
- High-skilled resources are needed for skill analysis.
- This model is not useful for small projects.
17. Explain the spiral model in brief.
The spiral model is just like the iterative model but incorporates risk analysis. It consists of 4 different phases including planning, risk analysis, engineering, and evaluation. In each development, the software will pass through these four phases in iterations (also called spiral). This model is a combination of prototyping and waterfall models.
- This model is not suitable for low-risk analyzed projects.
- It is difficult to define aims and variable milestones.
18. What are the different types of prototype models?
- The Patch-Up Prototype
- Nonoperational Prototype
- First-of-a-Series Prototype
- Selected Features Prototype
19. Explain scrum methodology in agile software development.
Scrum methodology is an iterative and incremental methodology. This is considered as one of the best methodologies because empirical process control is introduced in this process. Scrum is not only for software project management but also for software maintenance. In other words, scrum deals with the real-world progress of a project that is used for making plans and scheduling.
20. What does it mean by BRS in SDLC?
BRS stands for Business Requirement Specification. Clients deliver specification to the software development company and then the SDLC planning team convert these specifications into SRS as per the need of the software.
21. What does STLC stand for?
STLC stands for Software Testing Life Cycle. Software testing is a systematic approach and has five phases:
- Test Planning
- Test Design
- Test Execution
- Evaluating the Exit criteria
- Test Closure
22. Give 2 differences between SDLC and STLC.
|SDLC (Software Development Life Cycle)||STLC (Software Testing Life Cycle)|
|SDLC consists of the verification and validation of a project.||STLC involves only validation.|
|SDLC has BRS, analysis, design, SRS, development process, testing, and maintenance.||STLC is a part of SDLC. It consists of a test plan, execution, bug reporting, tracking, regression testing, and closure.|
23. What are LLDs and HLDs in Software Development?
LLDs stand for Low-level Designs. It considers a descriptive design plan that takes part in the development process.
HLDs stand for High-level Designs. It is present from the start of the development process. HLDs are given by architects.
24. What does it mean by the ‘scope’ of a project?
The project's scope consists of the goals, objectives, and expected outcomes of a project. Software scope is involved in defining boundaries that include all the processes which are used to develop and deliver the product. 'Scope' helps to recognize what the system will do and what it will not do.
25. In which phase, the performing ability of a newly developed system is monitored?
A recently developed system is continuously monitored during the evaluation and maintenance phase.
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