Sai A Sai A
Updated date Nov 20, 2023
In this blog, we will learn how to convert temperature units in Python. Ww will explore you through various methods, from simple conversion formulas to using Python libraries like pint and external APIs like OpenWeather.

Introduction:

Temperature is a fundamental aspect of our daily lives, and it is measured in various units worldwide. Whether you want to convert from Fahrenheit to Celsius, Kelvin to Rankine, or any other temperature unit, Python makes it easy. In this blog, we will explore different methods to convert temperature units using Python.

Method 1: Using a Conversion Formula

To convert between temperature units, use conversion formulas. Let's start with the common conversion between Fahrenheit (°F) and Celsius (°C).

def fahrenheit_to_celsius(fahrenheit):
    celsius = (fahrenheit - 32) * 5/9
    return celsius

# Input temperature in Fahrenheit
fahrenheit_temp = 98.6

# Convert to Celsius
celsius_temp = fahrenheit_to_celsius(fahrenheit_temp)

print(f"{fahrenheit_temp}°F is equal to {celsius_temp:.2f}°C")

Output:

98.6°F is equal to 37.00°C
  • In this method, we created a Python function fahrenheit_to_celsius that takes a temperature in Fahrenheit as input and returns the equivalent temperature in Celsius using the conversion formula.
  • The formula (fahrenheit - 32) * 5/9 is used to convert Fahrenheit to Celsius. It subtracts 32 from the input temperature (Fahrenheit) and then multiplies the result by 5/9.
  • The output is formatted to display two decimal places.

Method 2: Using Python Libraries

Python offers various libraries to perform temperature conversions effortlessly. One of the popular libraries is pint, which not only allows for temperature conversions but also handles unit conversions for various quantities.

To use the pint library, you need to install it first:

pip install pint

Now, let's see how to convert temperature units using the pint library:

import pint

# Create a unit registry
ureg = pint.UnitRegistry()

# Define temperatures
celsius_temp = 25 * ureg.degC

# Convert to Fahrenheit
fahrenheit_temp = celsius_temp.to(ureg.degF)

print(f"{celsius_temp} is equal to {fahrenheit_temp}")

Output:

25 degree_Celsius is equal to 77 degree_Fahrenheit
  • In this method, we import the pint library and create a unit registry ureg.
  • We define temperatures using the units provided by pint (e.g., ureg.degC for Celsius and ureg.degF for Fahrenheit).
  • The to method is used to convert from one unit to another. In this example, we converted from Celsius to Fahrenheit.

Method 3: Using the NumPy Library

The NumPy library is widely used for numerical computations in Python. It provides an efficient way to work with arrays and perform element-wise operations. To convert temperature units using NumPy, we can leverage its array capabilities.

Let's convert an array of temperatures from Celsius to Kelvin:

import numpy as np

# Create a NumPy array of temperatures in Celsius
celsius_temperatures = np.array([0, 25, 100])

# Convert to Kelvin
kelvin_temperatures = celsius_temperatures + 273.15

print("Temperatures in Celsius:", celsius_temperatures)
print("Temperatures in Kelvin:", kelvin_temperatures)

Output:

Temperatures in Celsius: [  0  25 100]
Temperatures in Kelvin: [273.15 298.15 373.15]
  • In this method, we import the numpy library as np and create a NumPy array celsius_temperatures containing temperatures in Celsius.
  • To convert from Celsius to Kelvin, we simply add 273.15 to the array. This is because 0°C is equivalent to 273.15K.
  • The result is an array of temperatures in Kelvin.

Method 4: Using a Dictionary for Multiple Conversions

If you need to convert between multiple temperature units, you can use a dictionary to store conversion factors. This method is particularly useful when you have a variety of units to work with.

Let's create a Python program that allows us to convert temperatures between Celsius, Fahrenheit, and Kelvin:

def temperature_converter(temp, from_unit, to_unit):
    conversion_factors = {
        ("Celsius", "Fahrenheit"): lambda x: x * 9/5 + 32,
        ("Fahrenheit", "Celsius"): lambda x: (x - 32) * 5/9,
        ("Celsius", "Kelvin"): lambda x: x + 273.15,
        ("Kelvin", "Celsius"): lambda x: x - 273.15,
        ("Fahrenheit", "Kelvin"): lambda x: (x - 32) * 5/9 + 273.15,
        ("Kelvin", "Fahrenheit"): lambda x: (x - 273.15) * 9/5 + 32
    }
    
    if (from_unit, to_unit) in conversion_factors:
        result = conversion_factors[(from_unit, to_unit)](temp)
        return result
    else:
        return "Conversion not supported"

# Convert 100°C to Fahrenheit
celsius_temp = 100
fahrenheit_temp = temperature_converter(celsius_temp, "Celsius", "Fahrenheit")

print(f"{celsius_temp}°C is equal to {fahrenheit_temp:.2f}°F")

Output:

100°C is equal to 212.00°F
  • In this method, we define a temperature_converter function that takes the temperature value, the source unit, and the target unit as inputs.
  • We create a dictionary conversion_factors where each key represents a tuple of source and target units, and the corresponding value is a lambda function that performs the conversion.
  • The function checks if the given conversion is supported and returns the result.

Conclusion:

In this blog, we have explored various methods to convert temperature units using Python. You can choose the method that works for you. From simple conversion formulas to using powerful libraries like pint.

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