## Introduction:

Fixed-point arithmetic is a technique used in programming to handle fractional numbers without relying on floating-point arithmetic, which can be computationally expensive on some platforms. In this blog, we will explore how to cast an integer to fixed-point in C,

## Method 1: Using Integer Multiplication

One common method to convert an integer to fixed-point is by using integer multiplication. Consider the following C program:

```
#include <stdio.h>
#define INT_BITS 16 // Number of integer bits
#define FRAC_BITS 16 // Number of fractional bits
// Function to convert integer to fixed-point
int intToFixedPoint(int num) {
return num << FRAC_BITS;
}
int main() {
int integerNumber = 42;
int fixedPointNumber = intToFixedPoint(integerNumber);
printf("Integer: %d\nFixed-Point: %d\n", integerNumber, fixedPointNumber);
return 0;
}
```

### Output:

```
Integer: 42
Fixed-Point: 2752512
```

In this method, we shift the bits of the integer to the left by the number of fractional bits (FRAC_BITS). The left shift operation effectively multiplies the integer by 2^FRAC_BITS, converting it to a fixed-point representation. In the example, 42 is shifted left by 16 bits, resulting in 2752512.

## Method 2: Using Explicit Conversion

Another approach involves explicitly converting the integer to a fixed-point representation by dividing it by 2^FRAC_BITS. Here's a C program illustrating this method:

```
#include <stdio.h>
#define FRAC_BITS 16 // Number of fractional bits
// Function to convert integer to fixed-point
int intToFixedPoint(int num) {
return num * (1 << FRAC_BITS);
}
int main() {
int integerNumber = 42;
int fixedPointNumber = intToFixedPoint(integerNumber);
printf("Integer: %d\nFixed-Point: %d\n", integerNumber, fixedPointNumber);
return 0;
}
```

### Output:

```
Integer: 42
Fixed-Point: 2752512
```

In this method, we multiply the integer by 2^FRAC_BITS, achieving the fixed-point representation. The result is the same as in Method 1, demonstrating an alternative way to perform the conversion.

## Conclusion:

This blog has explored the various methods for converting an integer to fixed-point in C. The choice between them depends on your preference and the specific requirements of your program. Fixed-point arithmetic can be a powerful tool in situations where floating-point arithmetic might be impractical or too resource-intensive.

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